2 Million-Year-Old Human Ancestors

April 12, 2010 · Posted in history · Comment 

Australopithicus sediba

A shrunken brain may potentially lie inside the fossil skull of a newfound candidate for the immediate ancestor to the human lineage, researchers now reveal.

This new species, dubbed Australopithecus sediba, was accidentally discovered in South Africa by the 9-year-old son of a scientist. Two members of this hominid were introduced to the world last week — a juvenile male and an adult female, who might have known each other in life and who could have met their demise by falling into the remains of the cave where they were discovered.

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History of Surnames

June 25, 2007 · Posted in history · 1 Comment 

Job designations are the most common form of family names; anybody who had an unusual job would have been bound to be identified by it. Examples: Schmidt (smith), Müller (miller), Meier (farm administrator), Schulze (constable), Fischer (fisherman), Schneider (tailor), Maurer (mason), Bauer (farmer), Metzger or Fleischer (butcher), Töpfer or Toepfer (potter). Note: the surname of Zeitler means "beekeeping in the woods"     — Read Full Article

Germanic Tribes

June 25, 2007 · Posted in history · Comment 

Latin 'Germani' was first used by Julius Caesar, and the term could be a loan from the Celtic name for the Germanic tribes. There is also a Latin adjective germanus (from germen, "seed" or "offshoot"), which has the sense of "related" or "kindred" and whence derives Catalan germà, Spanish hermano and Portuguese irmão, "brother". If the proper name Germani derives from this word, it may refer to the Roman experience of the Germanic tribes as allies of the Celts. The name may also derive from one of the principal proto-tribes of Central Europe, the Hermunduri.    Read Full Article  —– see GermanTribes.org

About Galizia, Galicia

June 25, 2007 · Posted in history, language · Comment 

In pre-Roman times the region was populated by various tribes, including the Lugiis, Goths and Vandals (the Przeworsk and Puchov cultures). After the fall of the Roman Empire, which most of southern-eastern Poland and western Ukraine was part of (all territories below the San, Bug, Dniester and Ztir), the area was invaded by West Slavs and Hungarians.   Read Full Article   —- Galizia (Galicia) Maps

German Language History

June 25, 2007 · Posted in history, language · Comment 

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language and one of the world’s major languages. German is also closely related to English and Dutch. Like all languages, it has undergone a number of changes throughout history. The main phases are called Old High German (Althochdeutsch, AHD), Middle High German (Mittelhochdeutsch, MHD), and New High German (Neuhochdeutsch, NHD).    Read Full Article

The English Language

June 25, 2007 · Posted in history, language · Comment 

450–1100 Old English (Anglo-Saxon) – The language of Beowulf. 1100–1500 Middle English – The language of Chaucer. 1500–1650 Early Modern English (or Renaissance English) – The language of Shakespeare. 1650–present Modern English (or Present-Day English) – The language as spoken today. Read Full Article 

History of Bukovina

June 25, 2007 · Posted in history · Comment 

Bukovina, on the eastern slopes of the Carpathian mountains, was once the heart of the Romanian Principality of Moldavia, with the city of Suceava its capital in 1388. In the 15th and 16th centuries, the Painted Monasteries of Arbora, Dragomirna, Humor, Moldovita, Putna, Sucevita, and Voronet were constructed under the patronage of Stefan the Great and his son Petru Rares. With their famous exterior frescoes, these monasteries remain some of the greatest cultural treasures of Romania, today. The name Bukovina came into official use in 1775 with the region’s annexation from the Principality of Moldavia to the possessions of the Habsburg Monarchy, which became Austrian Empire in 1804, and Austria-Hungary in 1867. The official German name, die Bukowina, of the province under Austrian rule (1775–1918), was derived from the Polish form Bukowina, which in turn comes from the Slavic word for beech tree (??? [buk] in Ukrainian). This was due to the fact that from 1775 until 1849, Bukovina was administered as an integral part of neighboring Galicia, whose internal government was, by active Austrian policy, controlled by Polish bureaucrats and nobles (szlachta). Another German name for region, das Buchenland, is mostly used in poetry, and means "beech land", or "the land of beech trees".         Read Full Article  —–  Bukovina Maps 

History of Bavaria

June 25, 2007 · Posted in history · Comment 

Early settlements, Roman Raetia, Vindelicia

The earliest known inhabitants that are mentioned in written sources were a people, probably Celts, participating in the widespread La Tène culture, whom the Romans subdued just before the opening of the Christian era, founding colonies among them and including their land in the provinces of Raetia and Noricum. The Roman center of administration for this area was Castra Regina, now and since the middle ages known as Regensburg. Vindelicia: In ancient geography, Vindelicia is a country bounded on the south by Raetia, on the north by the Danube and the Hadrian’s Limes Germanicus, on the east by the Oenus (Inn), on the west by the territory of the Helvetii. It thus corresponded to the northeast portion of Switzerland, the southeast of Baden, and the south of Württemberg and Bavaria. Its chief town was Augusta Vindelicorum (Augsburg). Its inhabitants, the Vindelici were probably Celtic (Gaulish) or Germanic, and a possible etymology of their name includes an element vind- cognate to Irish find- "white". Together with the neighboring tribes they were subjugated by Tiberius in 15 BC. The Augustean inscription of 12 BC mentions four tribes of the Vindelici among the defeated.    Read Full Article

The 30 Years War

June 25, 2007 · Posted in history, war, wars · Comment 

The Thirty Years’ War, 1618-1648, was mainly fought on the territory of today’s Germany, and involved most of the major European powers. Although it seemed a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics, it boiled down to a clash between the Habsburg dynasty and other powers. Catholic France supported the Protestant side, showing that the motive was purely power–and that anti-Hapsburg sentiment.

The impact of the Thirty Years’ War and related episodes of famine and disease was devastating. The war may have lasted for 30 years, but the conflicts that triggered it continued unresolved for a much longer time. The war ended with the Treaty of Westphalia.    Read Full Article